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Surgery of congenital heart defects

Congenital heart defects are problems with the heart structure that are present ever since birth. These defects include

  • Defects of the inner walls of the heart
  • Defects of heart valves
  • Defects of the arteries and veins that carry blood to the heart and outside the heart, in the body.

Congenital heart defects change the normal flow of blood through the heart. This occurs due to the underdeveloped parts of the heart before birth.

There are many types of congenital heart defects, which can be simple defects with no symptoms to complex defects with severe, life-threatening symptoms. Examples of congenital defects include:

  • Atrial septal defect
  • Ventricular septal defect
  • Pulmonary valve stenosis
  • Coarctation of the aorta
  • Right ventricular hypertrophy
  • Tetralogy Fallot (combination of several defects)