The periradicular therapy is a minimally invasive therapeutic procedure – application of a medication by means of a very thin needle in the neuroforamen of the cervical or the lumbosacral part of the spine, in patients with discus hernia that causes radiculopathy (lumboischialgia, that is, cervicobrachial syndrome). The intervention (treatment) is performed in patients where conservative treatment does not help. The treatment leads to instant pain relief, and it reduces the local swelling and soothes the local inflammatory reaction that occurs in discus hernia. Sometimes it is necessary to repeat the treatment after 2-3 weeks, however the repeated occurrence of the symptoms usually doesn’t have the same intensity as previously. The procedure is performed in outpatient conditions, it lasts about 20-30 minutes, and then the patient stays for another half an hour to maximum an hour, and leaves home.
Description of the intervention:
- the region of interest is sterilized,
- it is punctured with a very thin needle with CT-guidance,
- a local anesthetic and long-acting corticosteroid are injected,
- a dressing with a small gauze is placed,
- the patient stays about half an hour to one hour and is discharged home on the same day.
Varicocele embolisation is an interventional radiological procedure by means of which an embolisation material is injected with a transcatheter and the varicose spermatic vein is embolized. The intervention lasts about an hour, it is a substitute for a surgery, however unlike a surgery, it is performed only with local anesthesia and it is a minimally invasive procedure after which the patient leaves home on the same day.
When a suspected breast abnormality is detected with an ultrasound examination, the doctor may choose to perform an ultrasound-guided biopsy. The ultrasound-guided biopsy uses sound waves to help locate a lump or abnormality and to remove a tissue sample for examination under a microscope. This is a less invasive procedure than biopsy, it leaves a small scar or does not leave a scar at all and does not include exposure to ionizing radiation.
You need to wear comfortable clothes for your ultrasound examination. You may need to remove all the clothes and the jewelry in the part that needs to be examined. Before a needle biopsy, you should tell your doctor about all the medicines you are taking at the moment, including herbal supplements and your need to inform your doctor if you have any allergies, especially related to anesthesia. Your doctor may advise you to stop taking aspirin or an anticoagulant three days before the procedure. In addition, inform your doctor about recent diseases or other medical conditions. You may want a relative or a friend to accompany you and to take you home afterwards. This is recommendable if you were under sedatives.
During the procedure and afterwards
You will be positioned in a lying position with the face facing up on the examination table or you will be turned slightly laterally. A local anesthetic will be injected in your breast in order to cause stiffness. By pressing the probe towards the chest, the expert who is working with the sonograph or the radiologist will locate the lesion. A very small incision is made on the skin where the needle for biopsy needs to be inserted. The radiologist, who monitors the spot of the lesion with the ultrasound probe, will put the needle and will transfer it directly to the table. Once this sample is taken, the needle will be removed. As soon as the biopsy is completed, pressure will be applied in order to terminate any bleeding and the skin opening is covered with a dressing. No stiches are needed. This procedure is usually performed in one hour. You will be awake during the biopsy and you will probably experience a little discomfort. Most women say they felt little pain or did not feel pain at all and did not have any scars on the breast. If you notice a swelling and bruising following a biopsy, you may be instructed to take an analgesic that is taken without prescription and to use a cold coating. A temporary scar is common. You should contact your doctor if you notice excessive swelling, bleeding, leakage, redness, or heat in your breast. You should avoid strenuous activity 24 hours after a biopsy. After that time period, usually you will be able to continue with the normal activities.
- There is no risk of bleeding or formation of hematoma or blood collection at the site of the biopsy. However, the risk is less than one percent of the patients.
- Any procedure that involves penetration into the skin, carries the risk of infection. The possibility of infection requiring treatment with antibiotics is less than 1 in 1.000.