Stress incontinence is a condition when the bladder passes urine at unanticipated moments, such as during some physical work when coughing, sneezing, and the like. It occurs when damage is caused to the function of muscles in the small pelvis that control the act of urinating. This muscular function may be impaired by childbirth, injury in the region, certain medications, surgery in that region (surgical treatment of prostate cancer in men). It is more common in women.
Diagnosis is set by examining and performing some tests and interventions – cystoscopy, echo diagnostics, measurement of residual urine, urine culture, rtg with a contrast, etc. The treatment can be modulated according to the clinical condition and the severity of the symptoms. It is usually possible to start with medication therapy with tablets that increase the muscle tone and change the habits. These changes imply to drink smaller amounts of liquid more frequently, to perform urination even with the slightest stimulation, not to wait. Running and jumping with a rope are physical activities that also affect the tone of the overall musculature. Smoking cigarettes should be terminated. The use of alcoholic beverages and caffeine-containing beverages should be reduced. The body weight should be reduced, and if the patient is a diabetic, he should control the level of blood sugar within the permitted limits. The ultimate way to treat this condition is a surgical treatment. It can be:
- Reconstruction of the front wall of the vagina
- Setting an auxiliary sphincter
- Injecting collagen
- Retropubic suspension of the bladder and the urethra
- Support of the bladder and the urethra by means of elastic materials
- Vaginal supports of the urethra
The penis is a male sex organ, which, like other organs in the human body, can be affected by various diseases, some of which require surgical treatment. Beginning from the earliest childhood to the nursing age, the penile diseases that are surgically resolved include:
Phimosis – It is a condition of hindered or completely impossible withdrawal of the skin over the head of the penis. It can occur in all age groups, as a congenital condition, or as an acquired condition usually due to poor hygiene.
The surgical treatment of phimosis is circumcision – a procedure of circumcising the whole skin and it is completely removed so that the head of the penis remains free.
Hypospadias – It is a congenital anomaly of the male sex organ when the urethra opens on the bottom side of the penis, and not at the top. It is treated exclusively by surgery, with a reconstruction of the urethra.
Epispadias – It is a congenital anomaly of the male sex organ when the urethra opens on the upper side of the penis, and not at the top. It is treated exclusively by surgery, with a reconstruction of the urethra.
Curvature of the penis
Curvature of the penis – Curvature of the penis on one side is a condition that is usually recognized in puberty. The penis has a normal appearance, however during an erection it is positioned with a tilt on one side. It is treated exclusively by applying tunica albugnea.
Nephrectomy (kidney removal – in nonfunctional kidney and kidney tumor). The treatment of most kidney cancers begins with removal of the primary tumor in an operation called a nephrectomy. The purpose of the surgery is to remove the primary tumor and involved tissue in the kidney. Even if cancer has already spread, a nephrectomy may still be beneficial because your body then has less cancer to fight through treatments that your doctors might recommend after surgery. There are 2 basic types of nephrectomies for kidney cancer. In an open partial nephrectomy, the surgeon removes just the part of the kidney that contains the tumor. An open radical nephrectomy involves removal of the entire kidney, and often includes the adrenal gland above the kidney, the surrounding fat tissue, and the lymph nodes adjacent to the kidney.
Transvesical prostatectomy or open prostatectomy is an option for a surgery in cases of an increased prostate which is very large (for example, more than 80 gr). This enlargement of the prostate is called benign prostatic hyperplasia or BHP. In these men a transurethral surgery is not safe.
Circumcision (phimosis surgery)
Circumcision (surgery of phimosis) Phimosis is a condition that causes pain when the foreskin of the penis is withdrawn. It occurs in boys and men who have not made a circumcision (removal of the foreskin at the tip of the penis). If the skin is withdrawn violently, it may be damaged.
Removal of a testicle due to testicular tumor
Removal of a testicle due to testicular tumor (orchifunicolectomy) Orchiectomy (also called Orchidectomy) is a surgical procedure when removal of one or two testicles is performed for cancer treatment or for other purposes, reduction of testosterone.
Hydrocele of a testicle
Hydrocele of the testicle is a physiological accumulation of fluid around the testicle, which causes swelling in the scrotum. Hydrocele is common in newborns and usually it disappears without a treatment during the first year. Older boys or adult men may develop hydrocele due to inflammation or injury in the scrotum.
Endoscopic surgery is a minimal invasive approach where urological surgeons use a small video camera (endoscope) and specialized surgical instruments attached to the endoscope for examination of the bladder, the urinary tract and the kidneys.
Endoscopic surgery for urinary stones
Endoscopic surgery for urinary stones is performed by applying endoscopic techniques called cystoscopy, urethroscopy, and percutaneous endoscopy. An ureteroscope is a specialized, very long, thin endoscope that carries a small telescopic camera and specialized surgical tools.
Endoscopic surgery for bladder cancer
Endoscopic surgery for bladder cancer. The form of treatment of bladder cancer called a superficial transitional cell carcinoma with endoscopic surgery called transurethral resection. By using an endoscope called a cystoscope, surgeons locate the tumor in the bladder and remove it with a small wire…
Benign enlargement of the prostate
Benign prostatic hyperplasia. Men in their middle and late years often experience blockage of urination which occurs when the prostate is enlarged, which is also known as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). This is the most common abnormality that affects the prostate. It is a completely benign condition and is not related…